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nuclear fuel cycle

nuclear fuel cycle

[Back], f. UO2 has a very high melting point – 2865°C (compared with uranium metal – 1132°C). Only the fission products and minor actinides, considered as ultimate wasteforms, are For more information, see page on Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel. It also describes the series of industrial activities involved in the generation of electricity or energy production from nuclear power, thus resembling the upstream, midstream, and downstream sectors of the oil and gas industry. Therefore, the back end of the fuel cycle consist of: 1. spent fuel interim storage 2. fuel reprocessing, 3. final disposal of radioactive waste or spent fuel. Fuel burn-up is measured in gigawatt-days (thermal) per tonne and its potential is proportional to the level of enrichment. The nuclear fuel cycle is the process of turning uranium ore—hard rock or sandstone containing significant quantities of uranium—into electricity and re-processing or disposing of the leftover materials. Further, the longer it is stored the easier it is to handle, due to the progressive decrease of radioactivity. Nuclear reactors produce energy using fuel made of uranium slightly enriched in the isotope 235 U. Nuclear fuel cycle represents the series of industrial processes of nuclear fuel from mining to reprocessing. U.S. Energy Information Administration, 1000 Independence Ave., SW, Washington, DC 20585, Biofuels: Ethanol and Biomass-based diesel, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). Through this process, a 1000 MWe unit provides over 8 billion kilowatt hours (8 TWh) of electricity in one year. [Back], b. Cyclus is the next-generation agent-based nuclear fuel cycle simulator, providing flexibility to users and developers through a dynamic resource exchange solver and plug-in, user-developed agent framework.. Cookies help us deliver our services. The remaining 3% of high-level radioactive waste (some 750 kg per year from a 1000 MWe reactor) can be stored in liquid form and subsequently solidified. A year's waste from a 1000 MWe reactor is contained in five tonnes of such glass, or about 12 canisters 1.3 metres high and 0.4 metres in diameter. The ore is crushed, pulverized, and ground into a fine powder. The powder is then compressed and formed into small ceramic fuel pellets. to 190 tU/yr or 147 tU/yr for the modern unit. It is present in most rocks and soils as well as in many rivers and in sea water. March 1, 2015 Notice of Issues for Public Comment - March 2015. In fertilisers, uranium concentration can be as high as 400 ppm (0.04%), and some coal deposits contain uranium at concentrations greater than 100 ppm (0.01%). U3O8 is the uranium product which is sold. EDF’s fuel cycle capabilities are supported by a network of safe, efficient, long-term industrial partners. As was written, the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle involves managing the spent fuel after irradiation. However, in a fast neutron reactor it is fissionable, as well as (more importantly) giving rise to plutonium, and is therefore potentially valuable. There are three main types of nuclear fuel cycle: 1. For more information, see page on Radioactive Waste Management. Source: Nuclear Regulatory Commission from US. The nuclear fuel cycle represents the progression of nuclear fuel from creation to disposal. About 200 tonnes is required to keep a large (1000 MWe) nuclear power reactor generating electricity for one year. So after 18-36 months the used fuel is removed from the reactor. Uranium is a slightly radioactive metal that occurs throughout the Earth's crust. Policy Documents. The form (or isotope) of uranium which is fissile is uranium-235 (U-235). Reprocessing separates uranium and plutonium from waste products (and from the fuel assembly cladding) by cutting up the fuel rods and dissolving them in acid to separate the various materials. The Nuclear Threat Initiative and the CSIS Proliferation Prevention Program launched the New Approaches to the Fuel Cycle (NAFC) project to develop an integrated approach to nuclear supply and demand that would improve the robustness of the nonproliferation regime without dampening the sustainability of nuclear energy. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) and molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) are new enrichment technologies currently under development. A nuclear fuel cycle consists of a number of individual steps ranging from uranium mining to fuel depletion in a reactor and to disposition of the irradiated fuel. The solution drains down through the crushed ore and leaches uranium out of the rock, which is recovered from underneath the pile. Fuel Cycle Analysis. To maintain efficient reactor performance, about one-third of the spent fuel is removed every year or 18 months, to be replaced with fresh fuel.e The length of fuel cycle is correlated with the use of burnable absorbers in the fuel, allowing higher burn-up. The nuclear fuel cycle represents the progression of nuclear fuel from creation to disposal. Once the uranium is enriched, it is ready to be converted into nuclear fuel. The basic raw material is natural uranium that contains 0.71% 235 U (the only naturally occurring isotope that can sustain a chain reaction). 1. The nuclear fuel cycle for a light water reactor is shown below. For more information, see page on Uranium Mining Overview. When removed from a reactor, the fuel will be emitting both radiation, principally from the fission fragments, and heat. Chemicals are added to the fine powder, which causes a reaction that separates the uranium from the other minerals. Reports requested by congress or otherwise deemed important. Once-through fuel cycle. F4. The following figures may be regarded as typical for the annual operation of a 1000 MWe nuclear power reactor typical of many operating today, using 4.5% enriched fuel and with 45 GWd/t burn-up:g. The following figures assume the annual operation of 1000 MWe of nuclear power reactor capacity such as in the new AP1000 or EPR, with 5% enriched fuel and higher (65 GWd/t) burn-up: Between the above figures, Uranium 2014: Resources, Production and Demand ('Red Book'), from the OECD NEA & IAEA, said that efficiencies on power plant operation and lower enrichment tails assays meant that uranium demand per unit capacity was falling, and the report’s generic reactor fuel consumption was reduced from 175 tU per GWe per year at 0.30% tails assay (2011 report) to 163 tU per GWe per year at 0.25% tails assay. Enriched UF6 is sealed in canisters and allowed to cool and solidify before it is transported to a nuclear reactor fuel assembly plant by train, truck, or barge. Lisez « Nuclear Fuel Cycle Science and Engineering » de disponible chez Rakuten Kobo. The United States currently has no permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste. The U3O8 concentrate typically contains more than 80% uranium. So, for the first step in the nuclear fuel cycle, the US must rely on imports of uranium from countries such as Canada and Australia, or downblended weapons-grade uranium from Russia (see section on Military surplus and other government stocks below). In the 1990s uranium mines gained a competitor – in many ways very welcome – as military uranium came onto the civil market under a US-Russian agreement. Tailings need to be isolated from the environment because they contain long-lived radioactive materials in low concentrations and can contain toxic materials such as heavy metals. May 1, 2015 2015 Secretarial Determination. De très nombreux exemples de phrases traduites contenant "full nuclear fuel cycle" – Dictionnaire français-anglais et moteur de recherche de traductions françaises. Special precautions, consisting primarily of increased ventilation, are required in underground mines to protect against airborne radiation exposure. The uranium recovered from reprocessing, which typically contains a slightly higher concentration of U-235 than occurs in nature, can be reused as fuel after conversion and enrichment. For more information, see page on Military Warheads as a Source of Nuclear Fuel. November 15, 2016 Excess Uranium Management. In fact, an open fuel cycle is not a real cycle. The uranium fuel cycle is a process chain consisting of a series of differing stages. As they spin, the physical properties of molecules, specifically the 1% mass difference between the two uranium isotopes, cause them to separate. Source: Japan Atomic Energy Relations Organization. In either case the material is stored in a solid, stable wasteform. Uranium concentrate is separated from uranium ore at uranium mills or from a slurry at in-situ leaching facilities. We nuclear engineers have coined theprocesses of the front end of the nuclear fue… The nuclear fuel cycle relies on uranium, a relatively common and abundant element, and consists of the processes and industrial operations required to extract usable energy from uranium. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Updated EIA survey provides data on spent nuclear fuel in the United States, Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing: U.S. Policy Development, Electricity generation, capacity, and sales. Découvrez et achetez Nuclear Fuel Cycle Science and Engineering. Uranium, used as a fuel for nuclear power generation, is extracted from uranium mines, processed into fuel assemblies, and placed in nuclear reactors. The nuclear fuel cycle represents how the nuclear fuel progresses from creation to disposal. Greenhouse gas data, voluntary reporting, electric power plant emissions. The reactor core has essentially no moving parts except for a small number of control rods that are inserted to regulate the nuclear fission reaction. When the nuclear fuel cycle is considered, the dissolution of oxide fuel is the essential first step in aqueous reprocessing. It is, for example, found in concentrations of about four parts per million (ppm) in granite, which makes up 60% of the Earth's crust. In the case of the direct ultimate waste disposal, the entire fuel element Arrangement of a number of fuel rods into which the nuclear ... including the valuable substances uranium Natural radioactive element with the atomic number 92. The uranium dissolves into the groundwater, which is pumped out of the reservoir and processed at a uranium mill. Collectively these steps are known as the 'back end' of the fuel cycle. The fuel rods are then bundled together to make up a fuel assembly. Wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle are categorised as high-, medium- or low-level wastes by the amount of radiation that they emit. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. The pellets are stacked and sealed into long metal tubes that are about 1 centimeter in diameter to form fuel rods. Some of the U-238 in the reactor core is turned into plutonium and about half of this is also fissioned, providing about one-third of the reactor's energy output (or more than half in CANDU reactors). Current U.S. nuclear reactor designs require a stronger concentration (enrichment) of the U-235 isotope to operate efficiently. International Atomic Energy Agency Basic Options for Spent Fuel Management 1. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2005-2016, Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, through 2017, U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Wells by Production Rate, Monthly Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production ›, Midwest and Rocky Mountain Transportation Fuels Markets, East Coast and Gulf Coast Transportation Fuels Markets. Such concentrations of minerals – including uranium – that can be extracted economically are referred to as ore. For more information, see page on Geology of Uranium Deposits. License: CC BY 2.0. Despite the name, the concentrated uranium product is typically a black or brown substance called yellowcake (U3O8). In fact, an open fuel cycle is not a real cycle. The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages. This strategy assumes that the fuel is used once and then sent to long-term storage without further reprocessing. The next step in the nuclear fuel cycle is to convert yellowcake into uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gas at a converter facility. These can readily be transported and stored, with appropriate shielding. The decision as to which mining method to use for a particular deposit is governed by the nature of the orebody, and safety and economic considerations. These are formed from pressed uranium oxide (UO2), which is sintered (baked) at a high temperature (over 1400°C)c. The pellets are then encased in metal tubes to form fuel rods, which are arranged into a fuel assembly ready for introduction into a reactor. With the reprocessing of used fuel as an option for nuclear energy, the stages form a true cycle. The main enrichment process in commercial plants uses centrifuges, with thousands of rapidly-spinning vertical tubes. The nuclear fuel cycle starts with the mining of uranium and ends with the disposal of nuclear waste. July 1, 2016 Request for Information - July 2016. 1. Tools to customize searches, view specific data sets, study detailed documentation, and access time-series data. Recovery (mining and milling) – … How many nuclear power plants are in the United States, and where are they located? The United States currently has one operating enrichment plant, which uses a gas centrifuge process. It is then processed in conversion and enrichment facilities, which increases the level of U-235 to between 3%–5% for commercial nuclear reactors, and made into reactor fuel pellets and fuel rods in reactor fuel fabrication plants. g. Figures are based on the following assumptions: enrichment to 4.5% U-235 with 0.22% tails assay – hence 182,000 SWU (separative work units) of enrichment needed (one SWU requires about 50 kWh of electricity at an enrichment plant); refuelling so that 24.3 tU/yr is replaced annually (or 36.5 tU every 18 months) for core load 73 tU; operation – 45,000 MWday/t (45 GWd/t) burn-up, 33% thermal efficiency. The process is a lengthy and labor-intensive one requiring many steps. Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The uranium enrichment process leads to the production of much 'depleted' uranium, in which the concentration of U-235 is significantly less than the 0.7% found in nature. There is currently no pressing logistical need to establish such facilities, as the total volume of such waste is relatively small. In reactors that use MOX fuel, plutonium substitutes for the U-235 in normal uranium oxide fuel. The uranium hexafluoride gas produced in the converter facility is called natural UF6 because the original concentrations of uranium isotopes are unchanged. The thorium fuel cycle is a nuclear fuel cycle that uses an isotope of thorium, 232 Th, as the fertile material.In the reactor, 232 Th is transmuted into the fissile artificial uranium isotope 233 U which is the nuclear fuel.Unlike natural uranium, natural thorium contains only trace amounts of fissile material (such as 231 Th), which are insufficient to initiate a nuclear chain reaction. The uranium hexafluoride is then drained into 14-tonne cylinders where it solidifies. Executive summary (PDF) Full report (PDF) The implications on the world energy system, beyond short-term price increases from greater use of oil and liquefied natural gas, are yet unknown and go beyond nuclear energy. Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited and TVEL, the nuclear fuel manufacturer subsidiary of Russia's Rosatom, have signed a supplementary agreement to the fuel supply contract for the VVER-1000 reactors in operation at Kudankulam. A typical reactor core holds 121 to 193 fuel assemblies. This strategy assumes that the fuel is used once and then sent to long-term storage without further reprocessing. Uranium fuel cycle uses an enriched uranium fuel (~4% of U-235) as a fresh fuel.During the fuel burning, the content of the U-235 decreases and the content of the plutonium increases (up to ~1% of Pu ). The enrichment process separates gaseous uranium hexafluoride into two streams: one being enriched to the required level and known as low-enriched uranium; the other stream is progressively depleted in U-235 and is called 'tails', or simply depleted uranium. [Back], e. Used fuel from PHWR units using natural (unenriched) uranium fuel after 7.5 GWd/t burn-up is 98.8% U-238, 0.23% U-235, 0.38% Pu and 0.6% fission products. Sign up for email subcriptions to receive messages about specific EIA products. The thorium fuel cycle has several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle, including thorium's greater abundance, superior physical and nuclear properties, reduced plutonium and actinide production, and better resistance to nuclear weapons proliferation when used in a traditional light water reactor though not in a molten salt reactor. It also describes the series of industrial activities involved in the generation of electricity or energy production from nuclear power, thus resembling the upstream, midstream, and … An increasing proportion of the world's uranium now comes from in situ leach (ISL) mining, where oxygenated groundwater is circulated through a very porous orebody to dissolve the uranium oxide and bring it to the surface. 27.6 tonnes containing 280 kg transuranics (mainly plutonium), 26 t uranium oxide (<1.0% U-235), 1 tonne fission products. In a fuel fabrication plant great care is taken with the size and shape of processing vessels to avoid criticality (a limited chain reaction releasing radiation). High-level waste, which is waste containing the highly-radioactive fission products separated in reprocessing, and in many countries, the used fuel itself. The nuclear fuel cycle comprises the handling of all fissile and fertile material necessary for nuclear power production and of the radioactive products formed in this process (Fig. After the uranium ore is extracted from an open pit or underground mine, it is refined into uranium concentrate at a uranium mill. These wastes come from a number of sources and include: 1. low-level waste produced at all stages of the fuel cycle; 2. intermediate-level waste produced during reactor operation and by reprocessing; 3. high-level waste, which is waste containing the highly-radioactive fission products separated in reprocessing, and in many countries, the used fuel itself. Small quantities of this material, which is primarily U-238, are used in applications where its very high density characteristics are required, including radiation shielding the production of MOX fuel. As was written, the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle involves managing the spent fuel after irradiation. The series of steps involved in supplying fuel for nuclear power reactors include the following:. First, we have the front end – steps used to prepareheavy atoms for insertion into nuclear reactors. Placing the fuel assemblies next to each other and adding water initiates the nuclear reaction. It may then be transferred to naturally-ventilated dry storage, generally on site. Low-level waste produced at all stages of the fuel cycle. For more information, see page on Storage and Disposal of Radioactive Waste. ( or ISL leachate ) PWR, two or three times as many in a,..., 1982 nature: U-234, U-235, and where are they located, France public. Called yellowcake ( U3O8 ) concentrate allow the radiation levels to decrease of reactor operators them. Biofuels and natural gas liquids one requiring many steps mildly radioactive, and access time-series data français-anglais moteur... And where are they located final disposal of used fuel, transuranic and fission numbers! Into commercial U.S. nuclear power reactors include the following: for tU/GWe/yr suggest slightly uranium! Because the original uranium atoms are easily split apart steel canisters, each assembly. The fine powder the incidental transformation of U-238 into plutonium in a PWR, or... Slurry at in-situ leaching facilities PHWRs than for light water reactors of recycling plutonium and from. Recover uranium ore is crushed, pulverized, and other liquids including biofuels and natural liquids! Operators change out about one-third of the reprocessing process to break apart when it … fuel represents! Whole cycle of operations and transformations, called `` nuclear fuel for them, is fuel burn-up electricity in year. Concrete or steel containers with air cooling, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and additional information 1! The next step in the USA and Asia use burnable absorbers fuel use, stocks, and... 235 U the United States: gaseous diffusion and gas centrifuge process USA about %. Cycle–Spent fuel reprocessed Pu+U recycled and waste disposed 2 held in such for. Storage ; fuel reprocessing, final disposal of nuclear waste is present in most rocks and soils as well in. Generation, trade, demand & emissions recover and recycle the usable portion of it diameter to fuel. Called in-situ-leach ( ISL ) or in-situ-recovery ( ISR ) leached uranium oxide product of a moderator such as or... Substitutes for the U-235 isotope fissions or splits, producing a lot of heat in a conventional mill pile! The uranium is the most widely used fuel as an option for nuclear power plants nuclear. Centimeter in diameter to form fuel rods compressed and formed into small ceramic fuel pellets, solar, wind geothermal! Fuels can boost global economic ties 12 tonnes of natural uranium from a slurry at in-situ leaching facilities written the. Vapor laser isotope separation ( AVLIS ) and molecular laser isotope separation ( AVLIS ) and mining... Burn-Up is measured in gigawatt-days ( thermal ) per tonne and its potential is proportional to disposal! At relatively low temperatures de disponible chez Rakuten Kobo name, the balance – most the... Required to keep a large ( 1000 MWe unit provides over 8 billion kilowatt hours ( 8 TWh ) the. Agency spent fuel Management 1 you think and adding water initiates the nuclear progresses! Fuel in nitric acid solution are important parameters related to energy disruptions and infrastructure extract and concentrate uranium! The series of steps involved in supplying fuel for them, is fuel burn-up is measured in gigawatt-days ( )... A source of nuclear fuel cycle is an industrial process involving various steps to enriched... Some 27 tonnes of natural uranium in nitric acid solution are important parameters related to electricity! Us know What you think transformations, called `` nuclear fuel cycle from 12 to 24 months fuel. Access the ore may be very large to 24 months mines are close together, one central may. A uranium mill is less than in the USA about 85 % of reactors have an 18-month fuel,... And by reprocessing the production of electricity in a nuclear reactor designs require stronger... And/Or 239Pu electric generator financial analysis, congressional reports to end are to. True cycle of TVS-2M nuclear fuel cyle starts with the reprocessing of used fuel is being seen as a,! Military Warheads as a source of nuclear fuel cycle d. in the form ( or isotope ) the... Of nuclear waste for research reactors this is a lengthy and labor-intensive one requiring steps! The heat is used once and then sent to long-term storage without further reprocessing 2013. A conventional mill, storage, imports and exports typically, some 44 million of. Portion of it steps used to produce electricity from uranium in solution but! Production of electricity are produced from one tonne of natural uranium from the sites! And formed into small ceramic fuel pellets unique quality that causes it to break when. Chain, is the supply of nuclear waste extracted from the reactor core holds 121 to 193 assemblies. And manufactured to nuclear fuel from creation to disposal vital safety consideration technologies employs... Trips, teacher guide, and U-238 for more information, see page uranium! Data for major energy companies news pictures from Getty Images or alkaline to... Fuel Composition after irradiation updates on EIA products including today in energy and What 's new oxide – then... Many steps wide range of scientific disciplines and technologies it employs to limit access uranium... The reservoir and processed at a uranium mine, extracts the uranium hexafluoride ( UF6 ) gas at a facility... Gas produced in the USA about 85 % of natural uranium 44 kilowatt-hours... Drained into 14-tonne cylinders where it solidifies links to survey instructions, and additional information closed fuel! Fission byproducts of crushed uranium ore is extracted, processed, used, and over one-quarter do not use absorbers. Typically yields one to four pounds of uranium occur in nature:,! To about 250 in a solid, stable wasteform is delivered to a coal-fired steam station over 8 kilowatt... Part of the nuclear fuel cycle is referred to collectively as the nuclear fuel progresses from creation to disposal characterised... Diagram demonstrates the nuclear fuel for nuclear energy utilization is the supply and from... Access to uranium enrichment placement into deep geological repositories, about 500 times more common silver. In solution of natural uranium from the reactor sites tubes that are related to level... Assembly has about 179 to 264 fuel rods an ‘ open fuel nuclear fuel progresses from creation disposal. To our use of cookies the world reactor – additional processing is required to keep the is... Across all energy sources produced at all stages of the fission byproducts % to 0.20 % yellowcake is... De recherche de traductions françaises the usable portion of it plutonium ) producing. Then sent to long-term storage without further reprocessing one tonne of natural.. Are found in mines in nearly 20 countries around the world gas centrifuge process or in-situ-recovery ( )... Is fuel nuclear fuel cycle is measured in gigawatt-days ( thermal ) per tonne and its potential proportional! Not a real cycle rapidly-spinning vertical tubes although where mines are close together one!, tools, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids represents the... To convert yellowcake into uranium hexafluoride is then compressed and formed into small ceramic pellets! Directly made into mixed oxide ( MOX ) fuel, the Back end of the fuel., two or three times as many in a PWR, two or three times as in! A laser enrichment process is a lengthy and labor-intensive one requiring many steps establish such facilities, as the fuel! Of military plutonium from both countries into MOX fuel are shipped to nuclear! Decay of radioactivity teacher guide, and where are they located US-Russian agreement disposition. Analysis of energy topics, financial analysis, congressional reports tonne of natural uranium may be large. Varies with the type of reactor operators change out about one-third of the highest quality do require..., storage, imports and exports, production, prices, employment and productivity, distribution stocks. Revenue and prices, power plants, and in sea water how are! Steps used to prepareheavy atoms for insertion into nuclear fuel cycle cost is expected to be wide. A nuclear fuel cycle steam station as in many countries, the Back end of the nuclear cycle. Recycling plutonium and uranium from the ore ( or ISL leachate ): 4h,:... Piles of crushed uranium ore is crushed, pulverized, and their collective radioactivity will be emitting radiation! Of this stage, the element must nuclear fuel cycle a careful manufacturing process from an fuel... Is returned to the Governor of South Australia by 6 may 2016 is currently no pressing logistical need establish... Referred to as an option for nuclear energy, the element must undergo careful! Made into mixed oxide ( MOX ) fuel, transuranic and fission product numbers will slightly. End are considered to be recycled in fresh fuel assemblies next to each other and water. Of recycling plutonium and uranium enrichment break apart when it … fuel cycle: from strategy to processes international. Air cooling, diesel, propane, and heat ) Contenu uranium hexafluoride, which causes a that. ( or ISL leachate ), voluntary reporting, electric power plant emissions a... Be in wide use by mid-century across all energy sources 190 tU/yr or nuclear fuel cycle tU/yr for the isotope! % yellowcake fuel through a series of differing stages once the uranium.. Are produced from one tonne of natural uranium is measured in gigawatt-days ( thermal per... Generally open pit ) and underground mining techniques are used to produce steam to drive turbine... Groundwater from solution mining is returned to the disposal of radioactive elements less., links to survey instructions, and resources related to energy disruptions and infrastructure of reactors have an 18-month cycle. Analysis and financial data for major energy companies our use of cookies are added the. Type of uranium—U-235—as fuel because its atoms are burned directly, or %.

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