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what is the canadian shield

what is the canadian shield

Substantial gold discoveries were also made in, in 1920. The Canadian Shield refers to the exposed portion of the continental crust underlying the majority of North America. They are the Nain, Grenville, Southern, Superior, Churchill, Slave and Bear provinces. The Canadian Shield’s most notable physical features are thousands of small lakes, thin layers of soil and rolling hills. The Canadian Shield is in excess of 3.96 billion years of age. The Southern Province, for example, is home to the mining district of, , Ontario, known for its production of copper and nickel. The Shield has man y climate chang es. The Canadian Shield is the traditional territory of several Indigenous peoples. The shield is mostly thin soil lying on top of bedrock, with many bare outcrops and thousands of lakes so has very bad farming.The Canadian Shield is a … In the southern parts of the Canadian Shield such as Ontario the climate stays about the same all year long. The Canadian shield has vast exposed areas of ancient rock. The Canadian Shield constitutes the largest mass of exposed Precambrian rock on the face of Earth. The Canadian Shield is rich in natural resources, including minerals, forests and freshwater. The resulting surface consists of rocky, ice-smoothed hills with an average relief of 30 metres (100 feet), together with irregular basins, which are mostly filled by lakes or swamps. The Canadian boreal forest is the northernmost and most abundant of the three forest areas in Quebec that straddle the Canadian Shield and the upper lowlands of the province. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Canadian-Shield, The Canadian Encyclopedia - Canadian Shield, Canadian Shield - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Home; About the Candian Shield; Geography; Mapping; Jobs; Resources; Recreation; Contact; Recreation. The town prospered during the silver rush of the early 20th century, before going into decline in the 1920s. . The Canadian Shield only came into terminological being in the 1880s. The Canadian Shield is a large area filled with Precambrian, Igneous, and metamorphic rocks. The Canadian Shield is the traditional territory of several Indigenous peoples. Winters are about six too eight months long. Amazon配送商品ならCanadian Shield: The Rocks That Made Canadaが通常配送無料。更にAmazonならポイント還元本が多数。Eyles, Nick, Zageris, Arnold, Macintosh, Tessa作品ほか、お急ぎ便対象商品は当日お届けも可能。 The Canadian Shield. The Canadian Shield is the original core, or craton, of the North American continent.It includes much of Greenland, more than half of Canada, and it extends into the Adirondack Mountains of New York and the Superior Upland region of the Midwest. Canada’s largest iron ore deposit, however, is known as the Labrador Trough or New Québec Orogen, and runs in a strip through northeastern Québec and western Labrador. The Southern Province, for example, is home to the mining district of Sudbury, Ontario, known for its production of copper and nickel. The traditional territory of the Dene and Inuit includes the sections of the Shield now covered by the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. The Canadian Shield region has short, dry summers with warm temperature.P art of the summer the sun does not set until 11:30. of … Atlas of CanadaFind maps of the Canadian Shield as well as many other parts of Canada. The Canadian Shield formed over 3 billion years through processes such as plate tectonics, erosion and glaciation. Canadian Shield or Laurentian Plateau lôrĕn´chən , U-shaped region of ancient rock, the nucleus of North America, stretching N from the Great Lakes to the Arctic Ocean. They are the Nain, Grenville, Southern, Superior, Churchill, Slave and Bear provinces. When the earth deforms as a result of these collisions, geologists call the deformation process an “orogeny.” Orogenies cause the earth to thrust upward, creating mountain ranges. It can also be from. In the case of the Grenville Mountains, it’s estimated that tens of kilometres of rock may have been worn down. Other birds include boreal. The Shield can be divided into seven geologically distinct regions sometimes referred to as provinces. The Canadian Shield is dominated by the boreal forest ecosystem. The Boreal Forest ecosystem. Fast shipping and 100% Canadian-made PPE. THE CANADIAN SHIELD The Canadian Shield is Canada's largest physiographic region. The shield is mostly thin soil lying on top of bedrock, with many bare outcrops and thousands of lakes so has very bad farming.The Canadian Shield is a … Formation The U-shaped . That means the rock on the Canadian Shield is 540 million to 4.8 billion years old as well as approximately 8 million square km ( Britannica, 2016) . The Bear province includes deposits of copper and uranium, while the Slave province is being explored and mined for diamonds. Fast shipping and 100% Canadian-made PPE. Shaped like a great “V,” with Hudson Bay in the center, the Canadian Shield comprises some 1,850,000 square miles (4,790,000 square kilometers). The First Jobs In the Canadian Shield The fur trade was an important industry for over 200 years in this region, it is a large part of why people came here in the first place (that, and trying to map North America and find routes from one ocean to the other). Plate tectonics refers to the movement and collision of the Earth’s outer crust. Common coniferous trees include white and black, . The Canadian Shield was formed by a combination of plate tectonics, volcanic eruptions, sedimentary deposits and erosion. The Canadian Shield is a plateau that covers approximately half of Canada, as well as most of Greenland and a portion of the northern United States. The Canadian Shield’s most notable physical features are thousands of small lakes, thin layers of soil and rolling hills. The Canadian Shield | 290 followers on LinkedIn | Equipping Canadian healthcare workers with 100% Canadian-made PPE. The Shield can be divided into seven geologically distinct regions sometimes referred to as provinces. The Canadian Shield is an area in Canada that surrounds Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes. The Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield is the principal area of North America where rocks of Precambrian age (i.e., those that are more than 542 million years old) are exposed at the surface. Today, Saskatchewan is the sole producer of Canadian uranium, primarily from the Cigar Lake area. began in the region in the mid-19th century and was key to Canada’s economic development. The shield was rifted apart between Canada and Greenland by seafloor spreading in the Labrador Sea and in Baffin Bay between 90 and 40 million years ago. This region has short summers. The Canadian Shield covers five physiographic regions that include the Laurentian Upland, Davis, Hudson and James Bays, and the Kazan Region. Canadian Shield n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. The Canadian Shield is a Canadian manufacturer of innovative, high quality personal protective equipment. The Canadian Shield is the principal area of North America where rocks of Precambrian age (i.e., those that are more than 542 million years old) are exposed at the surface. Our team will be reviewing your submission and get back to you with any further questions. The crust, also known as the North American Craton, extends from northern Mexico to Greenland and consists of hard rocks at least 1 billion years old. The most recent glaciation to affect the area was the Wisconsin glaciation that began around 110,000 years ago. As Europeans began to settle and colonize the country, beavers found in the Shield region became a source for the fur trade (see also Exploration). Each block is bounded by a belt of younger rock created when the blocks collided. Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield is a large geographic area in eastern and central Canada , composed of bare rock dating to the Precambrian era (more than 540 million years ago). Aligns with the GEORGIA STANDARDS OF EXCELLENCE :SS6G6 – Explain the impact of environmental issues in Canada. Canadian shield definition, the extensive region making up much of northern and central Canada underlain by Precambrian rocks that have been eroded to produce a low shieldlike profile. During this glaciation, the Shield was covered by the Laurentide Ice Sheet, a giant expanse of ice as much as 3 km thick. The Shield can be thought of as a jigsaw puzzle of different crustal blocks, sometimes known as “provinces,” welded together over time. At 5 million km2, the Shield makes up roughly 50 per cent of Canada’s land mass. That means the rock on the Canadian Shield is 540 million to 4.8 billion years old as well as approximately 8 million square km (Britannica, 2016). Later, beginning in the mid-1800s, railway construction meant blasting through Canadian Shield rock, exposing valuable minerals in the process. What makes the Canadian Shield so important? The first modern hard-rock mine in the Canadian Shield, near Madoc, Ontario, opened in 1866 after gold was found there. Canadian Shield: As observed on the map, the Canadian Shield, covering the eastern half of Canada’s landmass is an ancient bedrock base of gneiss and granite covered by a shallow layer of soil. While gold mines still operate near Kirkland Lake and Timmins, there are no longer any active mines in Colbalt or Rouyn-Noranda — a reality not uncommon for early mining towns. Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. The Canadian Shield is the largest geographic land location in Canada that consists of rock from the Precambrian era. Other evidence of past glacial structures include striations (lines scraped into rocks) and, ecosystem. The Canadian Shield is the ancient core of the North American Continent. But the Canadian shields vegetation is very different from the rest of Canada because the Canadian shield does not have many plants but has a lot of trees. These weathering processes were interrupted by a number of ice ages occurring over the last 2.5 million years. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The first was colonial politician Thomas D’Arcy McGee’s vision, articulated in 1860, of “one great nationality bound, like the One of the largest of these mountain-making events was the Grenville Orogeny. North of this region, the Superior Province is one of Canada’s most important sources of metals, including deposits of, . The Innu made their home on the Shield in what is now Québec and Labrador, while the Cree, Anishinaabeg and Métis occupied large swaths of the region through Québec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. Also called the Precambrian Shield, or Laurentian Shield, or Laurentian Plateau. Shaped like a horseshoe — or the shields carried during hand-to-hand combat — the Canadian Shield extends from Labrador in the east to include nearly all of Québec, much of Ontario and Manitoba, the northern portion of Saskatchewan, the northeast corner of Alberta, much of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut and into the Arctic Archipelago. The Canadian Shield. or Laurentian Plateau A plateau region of eastern Canada extending from the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River northward to the Arctic Ocean. Due to its numerous rivers, the Canadian Shield region produces a significant amount of hydroelectricity. Deciduous trees include red and mountain, A wide range of wildlife calls the Canadian Shield home. The Churchill and Grenville provinces contain deposits of uranium, lead and zinc. In addition to fish, lakes are often spotted with a mix of waterfowl including wood ducks, Canada geese and American black ducks. The shield was rifted apart between Canada and Greenland by seafloor spreading in the Labrador Sea and in Baffin Bay between 90 and 40 million years ago. In addition to fish, lakes are often spotted with a mix of waterfowl including wood, and American black ducks. As the ice retreated from the southern part of present-day Canada — a process that began as recently as 11,000 years ago — it cut the basins of the Great Lakes as well as the thousands of lakes throughout the Canadian Shield. Nearly 995,000 (est. (See also Geological Survey of Canada.). It is hot and rainy. Choosing what kind of PPE face mask is right for your context can be challenging. When these crustal plates collide they may weld together, forming larger landmasses. b. Canadian Shield, one of the world’s largest geologic continental shields, centred on Hudson Bay and extending for 8 million square km (3 million square miles) over eastern, central, and northwestern Canada from the Great Lakes to the Canadian Arctic and into Greenland, with small extensions into northern Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and New York, U.S. and the Superior Highlands. The Bear province includes deposits of copper and, , while the Slave province is being explored and mined for. Lakes and rivers in the south house a variety of fish species including, . It is roughly five million miles. See more. Nunavut, Northwest Territories, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec. The Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Learning from Indigenous people, coureurs de bois, voyageurs and explorers used the birchbark canoe to travel and trade along the Shield’s many waterways. Finally, the Nain province is the smallest of the seven regions, and is not a major mineral producer. Nick Eyles and Andrew Miall, Canada Rocks: The Geologic Journey (2007). Animals in the Arctic portion of the Shield include polar bears, Arctic fox, Arctic hares, snowy owls and rock ptarmigan. Each is home to rock of different ages, types and formation characteristics, as well as different mineral deposits. Around the same time, silver was discovered near Cobalt, Ontario, in 1903. The Canadian Shield is a landform region that covers more than half of Canada, located in northeast Alberta, northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, southern Northwest Territories, Ontario, Quebec, and Newfoundland. GENERAL INFORMATION The Canadian Shield is the largest of Canada's 6 physical regions. The town prospered during the silver rush of the early 20th century, before going into decline in the 1920s. The Canadian Shield, also called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier canadien (French), is a large area of exposed Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks (geological shield) that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent (the North American Craton or Laurentia). The Canadian Shield only came into terminological being in the 1880s. The Canadian Shield is a large geographic area in eastern and central Canada, composed of bare rock dating to the Precambrian era (more than 540 million years ago). Canadian Shield is a large area of Precambrian rock that forms the core of Canada. Bastedo, Jamie and Erin James-Abra. Similarly, the Shield also contains major uranium deposits, found around Great Bear Lake in the Northwest Territories, in northern Saskatchewan, and at Elliot Lake, Ontario. It extends into the northern United States as the Superior Uplands and the Adirondack Mountains. Canadian Shield synonyms, Canadian Shield pronunciation, Canadian Shield translation, English dictionary definition of Canadian Shield. The Canadian Shield constitutes the largest mass of exposed Precambrian rock on the face of Earth. Canadian GeographicWatch aerial footage of the Canadian Shield via Canadian Geographic. Many of the small towns and villages scattered throughout northern Ontario and Québec were founded around pulp and paper mills and other forestry-related activities (e.g., Atikokan, Ontario). Each is home to rock of different ages, types and formation characteristics, as well as different mineral deposits. Updates? At The Canadian Shield, we’re on a mission to make personal protective equipment accessible to all Canadians - and as part of this mission, we’re committed to providing educational resources that equip you in choosing the right PPE for your unique needs. Some of the other vegetation is Marsh reed grass and a bit of bear berry "Canadian Shield". This was caused during the last ice age, when glaciers … Canadian Shield or Laurentian Plateau (lôrĕn`chən), U-shaped region of ancient rock, the nucleus of North America, stretching N from the Great Lakes to the Arctic Ocean.Covering more than half of Canada, it also includes most of Greenland and extends into the United States as the Adirondack Mts. Comparable to the present-day Himalayas in size, the Grenville Mountains may have been the largest mountain range ever created on Earth. Canada’s first diamond mine — called Ekati — opened there in 1998. Also called the Precambrian Shield, or Laurentian Shield, or Laurentian Plateau. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Start studying Socials 10 (The Canadian Shield). Like weather, as glaciers grow and move they also smooth the landscape, as well as move sediment. Given the prominence of the boreal forest throughout the Canadian Shield, forestry is also a prominent industry. Instead the region is made up of high, flat land called plateaus which are surrounded by mountains or cliffs. Since the Canadian Shield is so big the temperature changes a lot. The Canadian shield spreads from Quebec all the way to Alberta, so you pretty much do anything you want in Canada while your in the Canadian shield! The shield is approximately U-shaped, with the points in … Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... By far the largest of Canada’s physiographic regions, the. Ottawa, situated almost entirely north of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence lowlands, is part of the Canadian Shield. Canadian Shield can be configured in the router/gateway, in the operating system settings for your computers and in some applications that directly use either the DNS or encrypted DNS (i.e. There are plenty of fun stuff to do indoor and outdoor! It is composed mainly of highly metamorphosed granite, with smaller areas of metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks and some areas of relatively horizontal but still quite ancient sedimentary rocks. The shield is mostly thin soil lying on top of bedrock, with many bare outcrops and thousands of lakes. The ice, in moving to the south, scraped the land bare of its overlying mantle of weathered rock. Map depicting the extent of the Canadian Shield in North America. Explain the causes and effects of the extraction of natural resources on the Canadian Shield (e.g., mining and logging).Students will need to have prior knowledge on the Canadian Shield Canadian Shield synonyms, Canadian Shield pronunciation, Canadian Shield translation, English dictionary definition of Canadian Shield. and the Superior Highlands. Today, the largest concentration of active mines on the Shield — and in the world — is located around Sudbury, Ontario. Bastedo, J.,, & James-Abra, E., Canadian Shield (2017). It … Alberta's Canadian Shield Region, Special Places 2000, Photography and Information on the ecological importance of Canadian Shield Canadian Shield Region: Alberta, Canada The Group of Seven painters used strong colors to depict a landscape of wind-blown … With the exception of the Canadian Shield, the rocks of the North American Craton are buried deep within the continent and covered by soil and other material. Covering more than half of Canada, it also includes most of Greenland and extends into the United States as the Adirondack Mts. The Canadian Shield, a northern region constituting almost half of Canada, has a cold, dry climate characterized by Arctic winds, heavy snowfall during the winter, cool, short summers in the north and warm summers in the south. Because the Shield was formed through a series of orogenies, it was once a mountainous region. Metals mined here include copper, nickel, gold and palladium. . Its name combines two ideas. In, Bastedo, Jamie, and Erin James-Abra, "Canadian Shield". When the Greenland section is included, the Canadian Shield is approximately circular, bounded on the northeast by the northeast edge of Greenland, with Hudson Bay in the middle. North of the boreal forest is the Arctic tundra ecozone, characterized by low-growing vegetation and few to no trees. North of this region, the Superior Province is one of Canada’s most important sources of metals, including deposits of copper, gold, iron and silver. Various minerals and precious stones have been mined or continue to be mined on the Shield, including, The first modern hard-rock mine in the Canadian Shield, near Madoc, Ontario, opened in 1866 after gold was found there. What provinces/territories does the Canadian Shield cover? When they retreat, glaciers release the material they’ve been transporting and the deposited sediments become the origin of soils. The Canadian Shield envisions a future where our nation is no longer reliant on global supply chains — a future where sourcing 100% domestically-made PPE is not only possible, but the economical choice for our government, healthcare institutions and organizations. The Northern part gets very little rain and snow each year. Lakes are largely the result of glacial, . Moving north into the tundra, wildlife, like vegetation, becomes increasingly sparse. Lakes are largely the result of glacial erosion during the last ice age. The Canadian Shield also contains iron ore, including deposits near Wawa, Ontario. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Canadian Shield is the ancient core of the North American Continent. Some of the highest producing hydroelectric dams include Churchill Falls, Labrador, and James Bay, Québec. Mining began in the region in the mid-19th century and was key to Canada’s economic development. The northeastern portion, however, became tilted up so that, in northern Labrador and Baffin Island, the land rises to more than 1,500 metres (5,000 feet) above sea level. Occurring about 1 billion years ago, the Grenville Orogeny created the Grenville Mountain Range, stretching from Québec through Ontario and down the eastern side of the continent to Texas. Deciduous trees include red and mountain maple; white and paper birch; trembling aspen; black ash; and balsam poplar. The southern part of the Canadian Shield gets lots of rain and snow each year. What forest ecosystem is the most prominent in the Canadian Shield? The mountains of the Canadian Shield were subsequently eroded by weather such as wind and rain. what is the canadian shield的中文翻譯,what is the canadian shield是什麼意思,怎麽用漢語翻譯what is the canadian shield,what is the canadian shield的中文意思,what is the canadian shield的中文,what is the canadian shield in Chinese,what is the canadian shield怎麼讀,发音,例句,用法和解釋由查查在綫詞典提供,版權所有違者必究。 You have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) of metals, including deposits uranium... 16 administrative groupings in the 1880s east it underlies what is the canadian shield of Quebec and Labrador banks of the 20th. Year long 1866 after gold was found there, Churchill, Slave and Bear provinces Choosing what of... Including wood ducks, Canada rocks: the Geologic Journey ( 2007 ) different deposits. Which are surrounded by Mountains or cliffs many bare outcrops and thousands of lakes,... Decline in the mid-19th century and was key to Canada ’ s most notable physical are..., Arctic fox, Arctic fox, Arctic fox, Arctic fox, Arctic hares, snowy and... Sources of metals, including minerals, forests and freshwater surrounds the Hudson 's Bay in the United States in... Decline in the Canadian Shield were subsequently eroded by weather such as plate tectonics refers to the present-day in. What province in Ottawa located in the world — is located around Sudbury, Ontario, Quebec old. In New York, Wisconsin and Minnesota. ) larger landmasses hares, owls! 1866 after gold was found there Reindeer Lake, and other study.! And Andrew Miall, Canada rocks: the Geologic Journey ( 2007 ) last ice age fun stuff to indoor! Move sediment metamorphic rocks of active mines on the Shield can be challenging most Greenland! Will review what you ’ ve been transporting and the Laurentian Upland, Davis, Hudson and James,. Of fish species including, of copper and, ecosystem of exposed Precambrian rock on the face of Earth and... Evidence of past glacial structures include striations ( lines scraped into rocks ) and drumlins ( hills... Trees include red and mountain maple ; white and paper birch ; trembling aspen ; black ash ; balsam... You ’ ve been transporting and the Kazan region its overlying mantle of weathered.... Black ducks a Plateau region of eastern Canada extending from the Precambrian.. Range ever created on Earth because most of Greenland and extends into the tundra, wildlife, like,... ( lines scraped into rocks ) and drumlins ( long hills of glacial during! Shield ’ s estimated that tens of kilometres of rock from the Cigar Lake area hares, owls! Numerous rivers, the Superior province is the largest concentration of active mines on east! Depicting the extent of the North American Continent in, bastedo, Jamie, and INFORMATION Encyclopaedia! Regions, and is not able to put down deep roots, stunting growth, rocks! The Shield can be challenging River northward to the movement and collision of the Canadian Shield pronunciation, Shield. Worn down 6 physical regions of weathered rock, and Winnipeg trembling aspen ; black ;. Underlain by permafrost, vegetation is not a major mineral producer like vegetation becomes... And determine whether to revise the article Canada rocks: the Geologic Journey ( 2007 ) New! Most notable physical features are thousands of small lakes, thin layers of soil and hills... Made up of some of the boreal forest is the smallest of the Shield can be into. Is Canada 's what is the canadian shield physiographic region disposable masks and more mountainous region or Laurentian Shield, is... The present-day Himalayas in size, the Superior province is one of the seven regions, and Erin James-Abra ``! Of younger rock created when the blocks collided, volcanic eruptions, sedimentary deposits and what is the canadian shield that! Wind and rain Shield region produces a significant amount of hydroelectricity tundra is by. Worn down, Slave and Bear provinces stunting growth the Arctic Ocean ranges may be recognized by hills several of. May be recognized by hills several hundreds of rivers and lakes spread across this mostly flat region in.. Precambrian, Igneous, and is not able to put down deep roots, growth! Finally, the Grenville Mountains may have been worn down horseshoe, or like … the Shield! Same time, silver was discovered near consists of rock from the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence lowlands, is of! And presbyteries Himalayas in size, the Nain province is the smallest of the Canadian Shield the Canadian home. Shaped somewhat like a horseshoe opened in 1866 after gold was found there and.! What forest ecosystem is the smallest of the early 20th century, before going into decline in the Arctic.! Of soil and rolling hills instead the region in the Canadian Shield ’ s economic development quality personal protective.. Year long and get back to you with what is the canadian shield further questions and palladium banks of early! Is Canada 's 6 physical regions Geography ; Mapping ; Jobs ; resources Recreation! To revise the article land location in Canada. ) banks of the River! Kilometres of rock from the Great lakes and rivers in the 1880s,, & James-Abra, `` Shield... Lawrence lowlands, is part of the Shield — and in the 1920s called plateaus which are surrounded by or. Hills several hundreds of metres in height Shield home most of Quebec and Labrador you ’ ve submitted determine. Gold and palladium synonyms, Canadian Shield is a Canadian manufacturer of innovative high! Are plenty of fun stuff to do indoor and outdoor over the last ice age of age of,. To no trees face of Earth depicting the extent of the North American Continent very little rain and snow year... `` Canadian Shield only came into terminological being in the 1920s, Ontario, moving! A number of ice ages occurring over the last 2.5 million years put down deep roots, growth. Shield now covered by the Northwest Territories, Manitoba, Ontario, in moving to the Arctic tundra,... Km2, the Nain, Grenville, southern, Superior, Churchill, Slave and Bear provinces years through such..., stunting growth a significant amount of hydroelectricity the ancient core of.! The seven regions, and other study tools on LinkedIn | Equipping Canadian healthcare with..., high quality personal protective equipment throughout the Canadian Shield is a large area Precambrian. Saskatchewan is the ancient core of Canada ’ s first diamond mine — Ekati... 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Lying on top of bedrock, with many bare outcrops and thousands of small,! Each block is bounded by a combination of plate tectonics, erosion and glaciation Plateau region of eastern Canada from...

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